Home SalesforceInterview Question 20 Technical Questions to Test Your Skills in a Tech Lead/Salesforce Architect Interview-3

20 Technical Questions to Test Your Skills in a Tech Lead/Salesforce Architect Interview-3

by Dhanik Lal Sahni
Salesforce Architect Interview

Salesforce Tech Leads and Architects have extensive experience with the Salesforce platform. They should provide detailed answers to the interview questions. These are the 20 questions and answers that the Salesforce Tech Lead and Salesforce Architect Interview should cover. You can give different answers depending on your domain experience.

Check the Below Posts for Salesforce Interview Questions

Top 20 Technical Questions for Tech Lead /Salesforce Architect Interview – I
Top 20 Interview Questions for Tech Lead /Salesforce Architect Interview – II
20 Scenario-based Salesforce Developer Interview Question
Top 30 Scenario-Based Salesforce Developer Interview Questions

Q.41 How would you use Platform Events to decouple complex business logic in a Salesforce application?

Ans. Define Platform Events for particular business operations or changes. When these operations occur, use Apex triggers or processes to publish Platform Events. Subscribe to these events via Apex triggers or external systems that support the CometD protocol, and then implement the necessary business logic in the subscriber. This method allows for the separation of concerns, making the system more modular and easy to maintain.

Q.42 Describe how to dynamically create and manage communication between multiple Lightning Web Components (LWC) on a page.

To communicate across dynamically created LWCs, use LightningMessageService. Create components dynamically in JavaScript using createElement() and attach them to the DOM with appendChild(). Create a separate message channel for components to subscribe to and publish messages, allowing them to respond to events and data changes from sibling components.

Q.43 Explain how you would implement Apex Managed Sharing to satisfy complex record-sharing requirements not covered by Salesforce’s declarative sharing model.

Apex Managed Sharing offers a flexible solution for complex record sharing requirements that Salesforce’s declarative sharing options, such as role hierarchies, sharing rules, and manual sharing, cannot meet. It is primarily used in situations requiring dynamic sharing based on complex business logic. Apex Managed Sharing is implemented by creating custom Apex code to share records with Salesforce users, roles, or groups. Here’s a sample code for apex sharing

public class CustomObjectSharing {
    public static void shareCustomObjectRecord(Id recordId, Id userId) {
        CustomObject__Share customShare = new CustomObject__Share();
        customShare.ParentId = recordId; // ID of the record being shared
        customShare.UserOrGroupId = userId; // ID of the User or Group being shared with
        customShare.AccessLevel = 'Read'; // Level of access
        customShare.RowCause = Schema.CustomObject__Share.RowCause.Manual__c; // Custom RowCause
        
        // Save the sharing record
        insert customShare;
    }
}

Q.44 How would you design a Salesforce solution to handle high volumes of data transactions per minute from an external system?

To handle high volumes of data transactions per minute from an external system in Salesforce, design a solution that prioritizes efficiency and scalability:

  • Use the Salesforce Bulk API to perform batch processing, minimize API calls, and optimize data throughput.
  • Leverage Salesforce Integration Patterns Select the appropriate integration pattern (e.g., fire-and-forget, request-reply) based on the need for real-time versus batch processing.
  • Implement Queueable and Batch Apex: To process large amounts of data in Salesforce, use Queueable Apex for asynchronous processing and Batch Apex to process records in batches while managing governor limits efficiently.
  • Optimize the Data Model: Create a lean data model by limiting the number of objects and fields to what is required, and use indexing to speed up queries.
  • Platform Events for Near-Real-Time Integration: Use Platform Events to enable external systems to publish events that Salesforce can subscribe to and efficiently process.
  • Monitoring and Limitations: Implement strong error handling, logging, and monitoring to track and optimize performance. Be aware of Salesforce governor limits and design your solution to stay within them.

This approach ensures scalability, improves performance and complies with Salesforce best practices and limitations.

Q.45 How can you extend the Salesforce Mobile App with custom functionality specific to your organization’s needs?

Use the Salesforce Mobile SDK to create personalized mobile experiences or to extend the Salesforce Mobile App. Create custom Lightning Web Components or Visualforce pages for mobile, ensuring they are optimized for the mobile form factor. To create tailored mobile workflows, embed these custom components in the Salesforce Mobile App using Mobile Application Pages or the new Mobile Home feature.

Q.46 How would you integrate a Lightning Web Component (LWC) within an existing Visualforce page to leverage new web standards?

To incorporate a Lightning Web Component (LWC) into an existing Visualforce page, allowing you to leverage modern web standards while maintaining existing functionalities, follow these steps:

  • Enable Lightning Out: Make sure Lightning Out is enabled in your Salesforce org. This will allow you to use Lightning components (including LWCs) in Visualforce pages.
  • Create your LWC: Create your LWC based on your requirements. Ensure that it is designed to be used outside of the Lightning Experience, with a focus on encapsulation and independence.
  • Expose the LWC: To make your LWC available for use in other Lightning contexts, add the @api decorator to public properties and methods that must be accessible from the Visualforce page.
  • Add Lightning Out Dependency: To add the Lightning Out dependency to your Visualforce page, use the tag. This enables the use of Lightning components on Visualforce pages.
  • Activate the LWC: Use the Lightning.CreateComponent or Lightning.To instantiate the LWC, call the createComponents method within a script tag on your Visualforce page. Specify the LWC’s namespace and name, the div element ID where the component should be rendered, and any additional parameters.
  • Handle Cross-Domain Issues: If your Salesforce organization uses a My Domain URL, ensure that your Visualforce page and the LWC can communicate seamlessly, which may necessitate CORS configuration.
<apex:page>
    <apex:includeLightning />
    <div id="lwcContainer"></div>
    <script>
        $Lightning.use("c:App", function() {
            $Lightning.createComponent("c:exampleComponent", { /* component attributes */ }, "lwcContainer",
                function(component) {
                    console.log("Component created successfully");
                });
        });
    </script>
</apex:page>

Q.47 Describe how to customize Salesforce search functionality for a custom object to meet specific business requirements.

To tailor Salesforce search functionality for a custom object to meet specific business requirements, follow these steps:

  • Enable Searchability: Mark the custom object as searchable. Go to the Object Manager, select your custom object, and check the “Allow Search” box under “Search Status”.
  • Customize Search Layouts: You can specify which fields appear in search results by modifying the search layout for the custom object. Select your custom object in the Object Manager, navigate to “Search Layouts,” and edit the “Search Results” layout to include relevant fields.
  • Field-Level Search Settings: Mark fields that are critical to your business requirements as indexed. Setting the field’s “External ID” or “Unique” attribute to true will automatically index the field.
  • Use SOSL and SOQL Queries: For more complex search needs that cannot be met through the UI, use SOSL (Salesforce Object Search Language) to perform text searches across multiple objects and SOQL (Salesforce Object Query Language) for more precise queries on specific objects and fields.
  • Leverage Global Search: Change the global search settings to include and prioritize your custom object in search results. This ensures that users can quickly find records of this object using the global search box.

Q.48 How would you implement custom encryption and decryption logic in Salesforce for sensitive data that goes beyond Salesforce’s standard encryption capabilities?

To implement custom encryption and decryption logic in Salesforce for sensitive data beyond its standard encryption capabilities, follow these steps:

  • Identify Sensitive Data: Determine which data fields require custom encryption beyond Salesforce’s native capabilities. This could include fields with highly sensitive information, such as social security numbers or financial data.
  • Implement Custom Encryption Logic: Create Apex code that handles encryption and decryption using strong cryptographic algorithms such as AES or RSA. Use Salesforce’s Crypto class to perform encryption and decryption operations.
  • Secure Key Management: To prevent unauthorized access to sensitive data, ensure that encryption keys are managed securely. Securely store encryption keys with Salesforce’s Protected Custom Settings, Platform Cache, or External Key Management Systems (KMS).
  • Handle Data Access and Permissions: Use appropriate access controls to limit access to encrypted data based on user roles and permissions. Encrypt data only when necessary, and only allow authorized users with appropriate access rights to decrypt it.
  • Testing and Compliance: Validate the encryption and decryption logic to ensure data integrity and security. Validate compliance with regulatory requirements like GDPR and HIPAA.

By implementing custom encryption and decryption logic in Salesforce, we can improve data security for sensitive information beyond the platform’s standard encryption capabilities, adding an extra layer of protection to the organization’s data.

Q.49 How would you leverage Unlocked Packages in a Salesforce CI/CD pipeline to manage deployment and versioning of customizations?

Use Salesforce DX to organize metadata into Unlocked Packages, which divide the application into modular, version-controlled packages. Use Salesforce CLI commands to automate the building, testing, and deployment of these packages in the CI/CD pipeline. Use versioning to manage package dependencies and upgrades across multiple environments, resulting in seamless and controlled deployments.

Q.50 You’ve identified performance bottlenecks in custom Apex code and SOQL queries. How do you approach optimizing them?

To improve performance bottlenecks in custom Apex code and SOQL queries, use these strategies:

  • Bulkify Apex Code: To reduce the number of SOQL queries and DML operations, ensure that your Apex code processes records in collections rather than individually.
  • Optimize SOQL queries:
    Selective Queries: To make SOQL queries selective, use indexed fields in WHERE clauses and ensure query filters meet Salesforce’s selectivity criteria.
    Limit Fields: Return only the fields you require. Avoid Querying Large Data Sets: Use the LIMIT and WHERE clauses to reduce the amount of data processed.
    Use the Query Planner Tool: Use the Salesforce Query Plan Tool to analyze and improve SOQL query performance, with a focus on cost and cardinality.
  • Apply Lazy Loading: For Visualforce pages or Lightning components, use lazy loading to load data as needed rather than all at once.
  • Use Asynchronous Apex: When possible, use future methods, queueable Apex, and batch Apex to process large data sets or perform heavy computations asynchronously.
  • Review Loops and Logic: Reduce nested loops and complex logic within loops. Aim to streamline logic for greater efficiency.

Refer to the below posts for more details

Q. 51 Describe an architecture for processing and analyzing real-time data from IoT devices in Salesforce.

Use Salesforce IoT and Platform Events to collect real-time data from IoT devices. If additional computation or external service integration is required, create a scalable architecture that includes Heroku as a processing layer. Within Salesforce, use Apex triggers on Platform Event objects to handle data as it arrives, and consider using Queueable Apex for asynchronous processing. Consider Big Objects for long-term IoT data storage, and Einstein Analytics for real-time analysis and insights.

Q.52 How would you implement a custom authentication flow where Salesforce serves as an Identity Provider (IdP) for external service applications?

Utilize Salesforce Identity and set it up as an IdP, using SAML for secure authentication requests between Salesforce and other services. Implement Single Sign-On (SSO) with SAML 2.0 and ensure Salesforce is configured to issue assertions to service providers. If specific business logic or user interaction is required during the authentication process, customize the login experience with Visualforce or Lightning Web Components.

Q.53 For a global application with users in multiple regions, how would you ensure data accessibility, compliance, and performance in Salesforce?

Salesforce Shield for field-level encryption ensures data compliance with regional regulations. Consider using Custom Settings or Custom Metadata to save region-specific configurations. Implement data residency solutions as needed by utilizing Salesforce’s data storage solutions or integrating with external databases that meet regional standards. Improve performance by designing the application to work within Salesforce governor limits, utilizing caching, and employing efficient data retrieval strategies such as selective SOQL queries and indexing.

Q.54 How do you design a robust error handling and retry mechanism for Salesforce integrations with external systems?

Implement comprehensive error handling in Apex callouts, including HTTP response errors and Apex exceptions. Use Custom Objects or Custom Metadata to record errors and integration attempts. Create a retry mechanism based on error type; for transient errors, use exponential backoff and retry logic. For persistent errors, notify administrators via email alerts or open cases for manual review. Optionally, use Platform Events to separate error handling and processing logic, allowing for more flexible retry and notification workflows.

Q.55 How would you enhance the Salesforce Mobile App for a field service team needing offline access to data and custom workflows?

Use Salesforce Mobile SDK and SmartSync Data Framework to create custom mobile solutions that allow for offline data access and synchronization. Customize the Salesforce Field Service Lightning mobile app with Lightning Web Components that enable offline access to job information, customer data, and workflows. To test offline functionality and performance, use the Local Development for Mobile SDK.

Q.56 Describe the process to implement and enforce Multi-factor Authentication (MFA) for a Salesforce Community for enhanced security.

To enable MFA in Salesforce, go to Setup and configure MFA settings under Session Settings or MFA in Communities settings for the specific community. Use communication campaigns to educate community members about MFA and its importance to security. Provide clear instructions for configuring MFA with Salesforce Authenticator or third-party TOTP apps. If necessary, implement conditional access policies to limit the use of MFA to specific scenarios or users. Monitor adoption and compliance using login reports, and take corrective action against non-compliant users.

Q.57 How do you manage the versioning and evolution of a complex Salesforce data model in an agile development environment?

Salesforce DX and source control (e.g., Git) can be used to version control metadata and code, including data model components such as objects and fields. Adopt package development models, particularly Unlocked Packages, to facilitate modular development and dependency management. Create scratch organizations for isolated testing of data model changes. Implement a continuous integration/continuous delivery pipeline to automate change testing and deployment, ensuring backward compatibility and minimal disruption. Review and refactor the data model regularly to ensure that it meets changing business requirements, and keep documentation of any changes for transparency.

Q.58 What strategies would you employ for managing complex Salesforce configurations across multiple environments in a large organization?

With Salesforce DX, take a source-driven development approach and track changes using version control systems. Structure metadata and configurations into modular Unlocked Packages for easier management and deployment. Use environment-specific Custom Settings or Custom Metadata Types for configuration values that differ between environments. Create a robust CI/CD pipeline to automate testing and deployment across multiple environments. To ensure consistency, perform environment synchronizations regularly, particularly for sandboxes. Use tools like Salesforce Org Compare to identify and resolve differences between environments.

Q.59 Describe how to design an Apex framework that allows for creating dynamic, configurable approval processes beyond what’s available with Salesforce’s out-of-the-box approval workflows.

Create a custom metadata-driven framework that stores approval process configurations (such as approval steps, criteria for each step, and approvers) in Custom Metadata Types. Create Apex classes to evaluate records against these dynamic approval criteria and manage the approval process flow, which includes requesting approvals, tracking approval status, and handling approvals and rejections. Use Custom Objects to track approval process instances and outcomes. Provide administrators with a user interface built using Lightning Web Components or Visualforce to configure approval processes and track progress.

Q.60 How to design a scalable solution for logging and analyzing custom event data in Salesforce for a high-volume application?

Implement a combination of Platform Events for real-time event logging and Big Objects for scalable log data storage. Use Platform Events to capture and publish event data, and subscribe to them as needed with Apex triggers or external applications. Store event data in Big Objects to take advantage of Salesforce’s ability to handle large data volumes while maintaining performance. Use Async SOQL to aggregate and analyze log data stored in Big Objects, revealing application usage patterns or issues.

Summary

These advanced questions test a Salesforce Developer’s ability to design and implement complex solutions while demonstrating knowledge of Salesforce’s architecture, integration capabilities, and customization potential. Tailoring responses with detailed examples and considerations demonstrates a thorough understanding of Salesforce as a powerful platform for enterprise solutions.

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